Vacuum tubes

Tube related articles by Emilio Ciardiello

Tube related articles by Emilio Ciardiello

– 12AU7: the true history of the first noval tube

A survey of Italian tube manufacturers

British radar tubes, part 1 – Gridded power tubes

– British radar tubes, part 2 – Microwave tubes *** work in progress…

Heil tubes or Heil oscillators

– Klystron tubes:

– Magnetron tubes

– Selenium rectifiers: life and failures – It is customary today to replace selenium rectifiers in old sets, but most of them was designed for a superior life span.

Subminiature tubes in computers – subminiature tubes played a significant role in the design of compact and lightweight equipment.

The Trochotron, Beam Switch Counter– A survey of electron counters and Nixie displays.

TWT and BWO tubes – A family of microwave amplifiers and oscillators.

Vibrotron and Ramberg sensors, ***work in progress

New external articles

Early application of decimetric waves in ship-to-ship communication, by E. Megaw

Westinghouse tube development

– The Resnatron

 External articles

– Technical publications

Anodyne, anode-dynode beam-deflection amplifier, from Electronics, Aug. 1955

Binary adder tube, from Electronics, Sept. 1955

Canal-ray tube to investigate the ether, Electronics, June 1938

EMI klystron survey

– Heaters: Effect of filament voltage upon vacuum tube characteristics

Ignitron applications, GE ETI-108

Klystron UHF high-power with tantalum cathode by Varian, Electronics Oct. 1951

Magnetron oscillators, by G. R. Kilgore

Magnetrons, split-anode: chapter.23 from Very High Frequency Techniques, McGraw-Hill

The Cavity Magnetron: Not Just a British Invention, by Y. Blanchard, G. Galati and P. van Genderen

The High-Power Pulsed Magnetron: a Review of Early Developments, by E. Megaw

The Magnetron as Generator of Centimeter Waves, by Fisk, Hagstrum and Hartmen

Plasmatron, a controllable gas diode from Electronics

– Platinotron, X-band power amplifier, from Electronics

– Protection of power tubes against flash-over and arcing

QK329, Raytheon analog multiplier, from Electronics, Feb. 1955

RCA Electron Tube Design, 1962 (large pdf file, lots of construction details)

Reliability of Ground Equipment, Henney 1956

Sylvania: Ceramic mount tubes for automated assembly, Electronics, Aug. 1954

UHF tubes of small dimensions, RCA 1933

Transmitters for frequencies above 300 Mc, by Lindenblad, Proc. I.R.E. Sep. 1933

– Tube operation with zero anode power



– Burroughs – Beam Switching Application Notes, ETM-149

ELSI / ELTEL, Elettronica Sicula, Italy, by Emilio Ciardiello

FIVRE, Catalogo tubi trasmittenti 1973

GE Cermet tubes and MCMs: Performances and Application Notes

GE Cermet tubes: Reliability Reports

GE Microwave Circuit Module (MCM) data

GE Planar tubes, lighthouse and oil can types, bulletin ETX-110

GE VTM, Voltage Tuned Magnetrons

Marconi Italiana, Officine Marconi Genova

Philips Amplification by Secondary Emission, Aug. 1939

REL – Canada, by Emilio Ciardiello

Sylvania Catalog of Rocket Tubes

Shunguang tube catalog

The ‘B’ gaseous rectifier and Raytheon, by Emilio Ciardiello-


ASE News

No. 1, April 2018


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